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FAQs

THE PROJECT

The demand for clarification should be considered on the “nomenclature level” and some aspects should be clarified at this stage.

What does Bio-LNG stand for?

As the biogas in a liquefied form is similar to the LNG coming from the natural gas (as a fossil fuel) with around 93% amount of a pure methane and as a source for energy in a form of liquid (temperature of -163C) is a new area for both – science and commercial use, there is no clear nomenclature worldwide. The most popular acronym nowadays is bio-LNG however other acronyms can be also found in different publications.

What is the chemical composition of Bio-LNG?

The chemical composition of Bio-LNG is almost purely methane CH4, with small traces of CO2, H2S and H2O. Basically, Bio-LNG has the same chemical formula as LNG, except without the higher hydrocarbons present in the latter gas. It is also called liquefied bio-methane (LMB).

What is Bio-LNG?

Bio-LNG is a 100% biofuel since it is derived from renewable resources such as biogas. It can be produced at any place where anaerobic digestion occurs, meaning that all organic waste can rot and can produce biogas.

The perfect source for Bio-LNG is biogas from animal manure and sewage sludge or green waste. Before biogas can be liquefied to Bio-LNG, CO2, H2S and other compounds that have to be removed because raw biogas has 30 – 45% of these contents. Then this biogas is upgraded to high-quality bio-methane and the gas is liquefied to -162 degrees Celsius. Once liquefied, the volume of the gas has reduced at least 600 times. Therefore, large amounts can be distributed easily.

What does Bio-LNG offer?

Bio-LNG is an alternative fuel that can be seen as one of the main competitors of LNG. As a renewable energy source, Bio-LNG has a competitive advantage over traditional liquified natural gas.

LNG offers 20%-25% reduction in CO2, about 80%-85% reduction in NOx and 100% reduction in SOx and fine particulates. Meanwhile, Bio-LNG emits negligible NOx or particulate matters when burnt and reduces CO2 by 90%. Bio-LNG can even be carbon negative, meaning that zero emissions is no longer a pipe dream, but could become a reality.

How can Bio-LNG be transported?

Bio–LNG can be produced domestically saving transport costs and carbon emissions. Such option can be considered in regions with sufficient biomass availability, whether from waste or agricultural biomass.

Because of its high energy density, Bio-LNG is suitable for being transported on the road via trucks, same as for LNG.

What about the production capacity?

There is no significant Bio-LNG production capacity available at the moment as it is still an evolving technology. The production infrastructure is still limited, but since Bio-LNG could be applied in exactly the same way as LNG, it can benefit from the growing LNG infrastructure.

However, to switch from LNG to Bio-LNG, investments and technological developments are necessary to produce the required amount of biogas. Since now Bio-LNG is significantly more expensive to produce than LNG, and therefore typically requires subsidies to be competitive. Not to mention, more investments are needed to the fuel supply chain in order to introduce this fuel for the production capacity to be sufficient and for Bio-LNG to become a successor to LNG.

Can Bio-LNG be used as a stand-alone fuel?

Even though Bio-LNG could be used as a stand-alone fuel, at the moment the best option to reach the most sustainable fuel is to mix it with fossil-based LNG to increase quality, which can be important if minimum LNG methane requirements are changed in the future. This solution would make these gases not competitors but rather allies.

Communication

Pawel Warszycki

Executive Director
Hanseatic Institute for Entrepreneurship and Regional Development
at the University of Rostock

Address

Richard-Wagner-Straße 31, Haus 1
18119 Rostock
Germany

Web

www.hie-ro.de

Follow the project

 

Fax

+49 (0) 381 498 5634

Communication

Pawel Warszycki

Executive Director
Hanseatic Institute for Entrepreneurship and Regional Development
at the University of Rostock

Address

Richard-Wagner-Straße 31, Haus 1
18119 Rostock
Germany

Web

www.hie-ro.de

Fax

+49 (0) 381 498 5634

Follow the project